The main objective of the Action is to increase empirical, theoretical and policy relevant knowledge about the changing role of medical professionals in the management of healthcare. This Action is rooted in a number of recent trends in healthcare: the growing involvement of doctors in management and changes in medical education, training and career structures. These changes are assumed to be positive, leading to improvements in organization learning and control, innovation and user voice. However the evidence supporting such conclusions remains fragmented. While changes in the relationship between management and medicine have received some attention at national levels, there is less research adopting a rigorous, comparative, interdisciplinary perspective. Focusing on hospital doctors the Action aims to address these limitations to advance theoretical, empirical and policy relevant knowledge. The wider benefit for society will be the identification of promising practices in healthcare management to facilitate policy change at both national and European levels. The Action will also contribute to goals of enhancing the mobility of clinical professionals and the user voice in healthcare.